This the question Kirk MacGregor asks in an article I recently read in the theological journal Bibliotheca Sacra . In a fascinating and detailed paper, MacGregor argues that Paul’s remarks concerning head coverings were aimed at the prohibition of male effeminacy, female masculinity, and their implied homosexuality. His main thesis is that the words kata kefalhv ecwn (having something down from the head) does not refer to some headgear as is often said. In fact, the principles of grammatical-historical exegesis render it highly probable that it refers to long hair, as is seen in v14-15. The point is Paul is saying that men should not wear long hair and women should not wear short hair. Why? MacGregaor draws on Jewish, Greek and Roman sources to explain that Paul’s injunction is against both homosexuality in the church at large and the particular practices of men and women appearing and behaving in ways characteristic of the opposite sex (which were indicative of homosexuality). Very interesting article!